英语考研单词整理笔记

2021-06-03

  翻硕复习的一大重头戏就是词汇,而词汇量是巨大的,必须要有日常的积累和复习,并且掌握科学的记忆方法,才能最有效地积累词汇量。下面是关于英语词汇的学习笔记以供大家参考。

  (1)

  1、bicker(vi) ~ with sb over/about sth (为小事)争吵

  The children are always bickering over their toys 孩子们常常为了玩具争吵

  ★ wrangle(vi,n) ~ with sb about/over sth 与某人为某事争吵或争辩

  They were involved in a long legal wrangle with the company over payment。他们与 那家公司在付款问题上陷入长期的法律纠纷中。

  2、contrive(vt)plan cleverly or deceitfully;invent;design 谋划或策划某事,发明,设计

  (vt)想尽办法做某事

  contrive to live on a small income 靠微薄收入精打细算过日子

  ◎ contrived(adj)(贬)人为的,策划的,虚假的,非自发的

  a contrived incident intended to mislead the newspaper 企图蒙蔽报界的人为事

  件。

  ★ hatch(vi)~ out (指小鸟、小鱼)从卵里孵出

  The hen hatches out her young by sitting on the eggs 母鸡伏在蛋上孵小鸡。

  (vt) ~ sth out/up 策划(阴谋),拟定(计划)

  What mischief are those children hatching up?那些孩子在琢磨什么鬼花样?

  3、dazzle(vt)(通常用于被动语态)(因强光、闪烁等)使某人目眩,眼花缭乱

  I was dazzled by his headlights。 他的车头灯照的我目眩。

  (vt)使某人赞许,称奇

  He was dazzled by her beauty and wit 她的聪明美貌使他为之神魂颠倒。

  ★ glare(n)耀眼的光;怒视,恶狠狠的注视

  (习)in the glare of publicity 经常在报纸电视上的,受公众瞩目

  (vi) ~ at sb/sth 怒视,恶狠狠的盯视

  He didn’t shout and swear,but just glared sliently at me。他不喊不骂,只是默默怒

  视着我。

  ◎ glaring(adj)令人目眩的,耀眼的;生气的,凶狠的

  4、fumble(vt)(笨拙的或紧张的)摸索或处理某事物

  He fumbled the ball and then dropped it。他笨手笨脚的漏接了球。

  (vi) ~ at/for/with sth 笨手笨脚的寻找某物

  She fumbled with her notes and began to speak 她手忙脚乱的翻出讲稿,然后开始讲

  话

  ★ grope(vi) ~ about for/after sth 摸索,探索

  a tricky question which groping him for an answer。迫使他搜寻答案的棘手问题

  5、impair(vt)削弱或损害某事物

  Today’s attack has seriously impaired attempts to achieve peace in the area。今日发动 的攻击严重损害了在该地区谋求和平的努力。

  ★ damage(n) ~ to sth 损失,损害,损毁; (复数)损害赔偿金

  (v) 损害,损坏

  damage relations between two countries 损害两国的关系

  6、mortify(vt)(通常用于被动语态)使某人深感羞辱或难堪

  He felt mortified 他深感难堪

  ◎ mortifying(adj)使人丢脸的

  ◎ mortification(n)难堪

  ★ humiliate(vt)使某人感到羞耻或不光彩,使丧失尊严或自尊

  He felt humiliated by her scornful remarks 他听到她那些嘲讽的话而感到屈辱。

  ◎ humiliation(n)受辱

  7、predominant(adj)有势力的,占优势的

  Which country is the predominant member of the alliance?哪个国家在联盟中居

  于支配地位?

  (adj)极其显著的,盛行的

  Her predominant character is honesty。 她最为突出的优点是诚实。

  ★ outstanding(adj)杰出的,优秀的,

  (adj)(通常做定语)地位显著的,为人瞩目的

  The outstanding features of the landscape。景色的显著特点。

  8、sanitary(adj)清洁的,卫生的,保健的

  Conditions in the kitchen was not very sanitary。厨房环境不太卫生

  ★ hygienic(adj)卫生的,清洁的

  hygienic conditions 卫生的环境

  ◎ hygiene(n)卫生学

  9、wallet(n)钱包、皮夹(尤指用于放纸币、证件的)

  ★ purse(n)小钱袋,小钱包

  10、warrant(n) ~ for sth 授权命令

  issue a warrant for sb’s arrest 发出逮捕某人的逮捕状

  (n)(可得到货、钱、服务的)凭证,证件

  a travel warrant 通行证

  (n) ~ for sth/doing sth 正当理由,根据

  He had no warrant for doing that 他那样做毫无道理

  (vt) 证明正当、有理或恰当

  Nothing can warrant such severe punishment。这样严厉 de 惩罚毫无依据。

  ★ assurance(n)自信,把握;保证,担保

  ◎ assure(v)明确或有信心的告诉某人,向某人保证

  可能做的都做到了。

  They were assured that everything possible was done 已经向他们保证,凡是

  乐于工作。

  (v) ~ sb/oneself of sth 使某人(自己)对某事物确信不疑或觉得肯定无误

  They tried to assure him of their willingness to work 他们尽力使他相信他们

  ◎ assured(或者 self-assured)(adj)自信的,有把握的

  (2)

  1、allocate(vt) ~ sth to sb/sth assign sth for a special perpuse(为某目的)配给,分配某事物 给某人

  allocate funds to us for repair work 拨出经费给我们做修理费

  ◎ allocation(n) 配给,分配,拨出

  ★ apportion(vt) ~ sth among/to sb give sth as a share 分配某事物,分派某事物

  I don’t wish to apportion blame among you/to any of you。我不愿意怪罪大家。

  ◎ apportionment(n)分配,分派

  2、brawl(n)大声争吵,打架

  (vi)打闹

  gangs of youths brawling in the streets 在街上打打闹闹的一帮青年

  ★ fight(vi) ~ against 争取克服、战胜、摧毁或防止某事物

  fight against poverty 与贫困做斗争

  The two dogs are fighting over a bone。 两只小狗为一块骨头撕咬。

  (vi) ~ about/over sth 争吵,争论

  It’s a trivial matter and not worth fighting about。区区小事不值得争吵。

  (词组)fight back 反击,回击,抵抗

  After a disastrous first half the team fought back to level the match。该队在上半场 惨败后重整旗鼓以求扳回平局。

  (词组)fight sb/sth off 抵抗或击退某人某事物

  fighting off repeated enemy attack 击退敌人一次又一次的进攻。

  3、cynical(adj)愤世嫉俗的,自私的不为人所齿的,心中只有自己的尔尔。

  They’ve grown rather cynical about democracy他们逐渐感到所谓民主制度也不过

  ★ sarcastic(adj)讽刺的,讥讽的,挖苦的

  a sarcastic person 好挖苦的人

  ◎ sarcasm(n)讽刺,挖苦

  ★ contemptuous(adj)鄙视的,表示轻蔑的

  He threw it away with contemptuous gesture。他带着不屑一顾的样子把它扔了。

  ★ sneer(vi) ~ at sb/sth 嘲笑,讥笑某人某事物

  I resent the way he sneer at our efforts 我们已十分努力而他还讥笑我们,我很反感。

  4、embellish(vt) ~ sth with sth 美化、装饰或修饰某物;渲染、添枝加叶(使之更有趣,可 笑)

  a dress embellished with lace and ribbons 有花边和饰带的连衣裙

  He often embellishes the tales of his travels。他常给他的旅游趣闻添枝加叶。

  ◎ embellishment(n)装饰、渲染、润色;装饰之物

  ★ adorn(vt) ~ sth/sb/oneself with sth 装饰某物、某人、自己,装点,佩戴,装扮

  The dancer was adorned with flowers 跳舞的人戴着许多花。

  5、gallant(adj)勇敢的,英勇的;华丽的,堂皇的

  a gallant soldier 勇敢的战士

  a gallant ship 华丽的船

  ◎ gallantry(n)勇气,勇敢,英勇

  He won many hearts by his gallantry。他以殷勤热情赢得芳心无数。

  ★ splendid(adj)华丽的,壮丽的,堂皇的

  a splendid house 富丽堂皇的房子

  6、immerse(vt) ~ sth in sth 使某物浸于某液体中

  immerse the plant in water 把植物浸在水中

  (vi) ~ oneself in sth 使自己专心于,沉浸于

  He immersed himself totally in his work。 他埋头于工作。

  ★ plunge(vi)使某物突然而猛力投入,穿入,进入等;陷入;使某物突然前移或跌落

  They plunged into the water 他们跳进了水中

  The news plunged us in despair。我们听到那消息后就陷入了绝望。

  7、ostentatious(adj)夸耀的,炫耀的,卖弄的

  dress in a very ostentatious manner 穿的非常显眼

  ◎ ostentation(n)(对财富、知识、技巧等的)夸耀、炫耀、卖弄

  Their daughter’s wedding reception was sheer ostentations 他们女儿大办婚事纯

  粹是为了炫耀。

  ★ showy(adj)炫耀的,显示的

  8、presentiment(n)预感(尤指不祥的),凶兆

  a presentiment of trouble ahead 要出乱子的预感

  ★ foreboding(n) 要有危险或坏事的预感

  She had a sinister foreboding that the plane would crash。她有个不祥的预感,飞机

  要失事。

  ◎ forebode(v) 预示(尤指坏事)

  9、satiate(vt)(通常用于被动语态)使某人充分满足而不再需要某事物

  She pushed her chair back from the table,satiated。她把椅子从餐桌处向后挪了 挪,再也吃不下了。

  ★ surfeit(n)(通常做单数)过度,过量(尤指饮食)

  a surfeit of rich food is bad for you。多吃油腻食物对身体有害。

  (vt) ~ sb/oneself with/on sth 向某人/自己过多的提供某物(尤指食物)

  10、undulate(vi)波动,起伏,呈波浪形

  wheat undulating in the breeze 微风中起伏的麦浪

  ◎ undulation(n)波动,起伏

  ★ wave(vi)(指固定的物体)往复或上下摆动

  a flag waving in the breeze 微风中飘扬的旗子